Most of the reports on resource governance in southern Africa give Botswana the crown when it comes to transparency and accountability in diamond mining. Recent investigations however, reveal that things are not so rosy in Botswana. In the article that follows, Khadija Sharife and Ntibinyane Ntibinyane write about the potential losses to Botswana’s economy through diamond mining.They unpack the mechanisms that have induced this potential loss. Far from being transparent, they reveal that “Botswana’s secretive diamond economy is potentially constructed around the coinciding and self-perpetuating interests of a ruling party and a private entity. They further argue that diamond deals are not necessarily always concluded in the interests of the broader Botswana society”.